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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:hbsyjc.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用卧式加(jia)工中心吗(ma)?——加(jia)工工件特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)类(lei)型(xing)的(de)(de)选(xuan)定需要(yao)考虑加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)对象、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和设备(bei)价格等因素(su),根据所选(xuan)零件(jian)(jian)族 (组)进行。如果您的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)具有以下特征,则应选(xuan)择卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin):加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)以上的(de)(de)零件(jian)(jian)或(huo)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)在(zai)四(si)周呈径向(xiang)辐射状(zhuang)排(pai)列(lie)的(de)(de)孔(kong)系、面(mian),如箱体(ti)类(lei)、壳体(ti)类(lei)零件(jian)(jian)等,应选(xuan)择卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin);被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)位置精度要(yao)求较高,宜(yi)选(xuan)用高精密卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin);零件(jian)(jian)在(zai)一(yi)次装夹中(zhong)需要(yao)完成多(duo)面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选(xuan)择立卧复(fu)合式五(wu)面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)。当然(ran),上述各点也(ye)不是绝对的(de)(de),一(yi)方(fang)面(mian)是由(you)于加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)正朝着复(fu)合化方(fang)向(xiang)发展,另一(yi)方(fang)面(mian)选(xuan)型(xing)时要(yao)综合考虑生(sheng)产效(xiao)率(lv)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)要(yao)求和设备(bei)资金等因素(su),要(yao)以性(xing)价比来衡量(liang)选(xuan)型(xing)方(fang)案的(de)(de)合理(li)性(xing)。

建议(yi):采购用(yong)(yong)户(hu)需(xu)要根据(ju)加(jia)工(gong)对(dui)象(xiang)、加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺、加(jia)工(gong)范围等特征来确(que)定(ding)是否使(shi)用(yong)(yong)卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)以(yi)及使(shi)用(yong)(yong)什么样的(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作台尺(chi)寸

这(zhei)是卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)主参数,主要取决于典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)的(de)外廓尺寸(cun)、装夹(jia)方式(shi)等。应(ying)(ying)选择比典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)外廓尺寸(cun)稍大(da)一些的(de)工(gong)(gong)作台,以便留出安(an)装夹(jia)具所需(xu)的(de)空间,保(bao)证零件(jian)在其(qi)上面能(neng)够(gou)顺利(li)装夹(jia),此外还应(ying)(ying)考虑工(gong)(gong)作台的(de)承载能(neng)力、T形槽(cao)数量和尺寸(cun)等,小尺寸(cun)的(de)比较通用,比如站内的(de)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等。

建(jian)议:目前市场上的卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心工作台(tai)尺寸(cun)多为1000以下的,能够(gou)满足(zu)大(da)多数用(yong)户的需求。

(2)坐标轴行程

最(zui)基本的(de)坐标轴是X、Y、Z三轴,其行(xing)程(cheng)和工(gong)作(zuo)台尺寸有相(xiang)应(ying)的(de)比例关系(xi)(xi),工(gong)作(zuo)台面的(de)大(da)(da)小(xiao)基本上(shang)确定了加(jia)(jia)工(gong)空(kong)间的(de)大(da)(da)小(xiao)。如个别零(ling)件的(de)尺寸大(da)(da)于卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)行(xing)程(cheng)时,则必(bi)须要(yao)(yao)求零(ling)件的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)区域处(chu)于机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)行(xing)程(cheng)范(fan)围之内,此外(wai)还要(yao)(yao)考虑零(ling)件是否与机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)交换刀具的(de)空(kong)间干涉(she)、与机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)防护(hu)罩(zhao)等(deng)(deng)附件发生干涉(she)等(deng)(deng)系(xi)(xi)列问(wen)题(ti)。而对需要(yao)(yao)多轴联(lian)动加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin) (如增加(jia)(jia)回转坐标A、B、C或附加(jia)(jia)坐标U、V、W),如四轴、五轴联(lian)动卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin),这就需要(yao)(yao)特(te)殊订货,同时必(bi)须对相(xiang)应(ying)配(pei)套的(de)编程(cheng)软件、测量(liang)手段以及机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)价(jia)格等(deng)(deng)有全面的(de)考虑和安排。

建议:采(cai)购用户需要根据加(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)规(gui)格选择不同坐标轴行程的卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin),多轴联动需要特(te)殊定(ding)制。

(3)主轴电动机功率与转矩

它反映(ying)了卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心的(de)切削效率(lv),也(ye)从一个侧面反映(ying)了卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心的(de)切削刚(gang)性和(he)机(ji)床整(zheng)体刚(gang)度(du)。主(zhu)轴电(dian)动机(ji)功(gong)率(lv)在同(tong)类(lei)规格的(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心上可以(yi)有各种不同(tong)的(de)配置,同(tong)类(lei)规格的(de)主(zhu)轴转速不同(tong)的(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心,主(zhu)轴电(dian)动机(ji)功(gong)率(lv)可以(yi)相差很大(da)。

建议:采购用户应根据自身典型零件毛坯(pi)余量(liang)大小、切削(xue)(xue)能力 (单位(wei)时间金属切削(xue)(xue)量(liang))、要求达(da)到(dao)的(de)加工精度(du)、实(shi)际(ji)能配(pei)置(zhi)的(de)刀具等(deng)因素综合选择。

(4)主轴转速(su)与进给速(su)度

需(xu)要(yao)高(gao)速(su)(su)切削或(huo)超低速(su)(su)切削时,应(ying)关注主(zhu)轴(zhou)的(de)(de)转(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)(su)范围。特(te)别是高(gao)速(su)(su)切削时,既要(yao)有高(gao)的(de)(de)主(zhu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)(su),同时也(ye)要(yao)具(ju)备(bei)与主(zhu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)(su)相(xiang)匹(pi)配的(de)(de)进给速(su)(su)度(du)。目前卧式(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心高(gao)速(su)(su)化趋势发展很快,主(zhu)轴(zhou)从每(mei)分钟(zhong)几千转(zhuan)(zhuan)到(dao)几万转(zhuan)(zhuan),直线坐标(biao)快速(su)(su)移动(dong)速(su)(su)度(du)从10—20/min上升(sheng)到(dao)80m/min以上,当然其功能(neng)部件(jian)如电(dian)主(zhu)轴(zhou)、直线电(dian)动(dong)机、直线滚动(dong)导轨、主(zhu)轴(zhou)轴(zhou)承等及相(xiang)配套(tao)的(de)(de)光栅尺、刀具(ju)等附件(jian)价格也(ye)都相(xiang)应(ying)上升(sheng),甚(shen)至很昂贵(gui)。

建议:采购(gou)用户必须根(gen)据自身的技术能力和配(pei)套能力合理(li)作出卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心的合理(li)选型。

(5)刀库容量

可(ke)以根(gen)据被加工(gong)(gong)零件(jian)的工(gong)(gong)艺分析结(jie)果(guo)来(lai)确定所(suo)需数量(liang),通常(chang)以典型零件(jian)在一次装夹中(zhong)所(suo)需刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)数量(liang)来(lai)确定刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)(ku)的容(rong)量(liang),卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)以选(xuan)用(yong)40把(ba)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)左右的刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)(ku)为宜(yi)。同时要关注最大(da)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)直径(jing)与长度(du)以及最大(da)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)重量(liang)等(deng)。用(yong)于(yu)FMC或FMS的卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin),应选(xuan)择大(da)容(rong)量(liang)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)(ku),甚至配置可(ke)交换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)(ku)。

建(jian)议:普(pu)通(tong)卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)选择(ze)(ze)40把刀左(zuo)右的刀库(ku)即(ji)够用,用于FMC或FMS的卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)应选择(ze)(ze)大容(rong)量刀库(ku)。

3我需要选(xuan)用什么精(jing)度的卧式(shi)加工中心?——精(jing)度的选(xuan)定

加(jia)工中(zhong)心的精(jing)(jing)度(du)等级主要(yao)根据典型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)关键部位的精(jing)(jing)度(du)来确(que)定(ding)(ding)(ding)。其精(jing)(jing)度(du)主要(yao)包括定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度(du)、重复定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度(du)和铣圆精(jing)(jing)度(du),特别(bie)是(shi)重复定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度(du),它反(fan)映了坐标(biao)(biao)(biao)轴的定(ding)(ding)(ding)位稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)(ding)性,是(shi)衡(heng)量该轴是(shi)否稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)(ding)可靠工作的基(ji)本(ben)(ben)指标(biao)(biao)(biao)。特别(bie)值(zhi)得注意的是(shi),选(xuan)型(xing)订货时必须全面分(fen)析(xi),不(bu)(bu)能简单地看产(chan)品(pin)样本(ben)(ben)所(suo)列(lie)的精(jing)(jing)度(du)数值(zhi),因为标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)(bu)同、规定(ding)(ding)(ding)数值(zhi)不(bu)(bu)同、检(jian)测方(fang)法不(bu)(bu)同,数值(zhi)的含义就不(bu)(bu)同。刊物、样本(ben)(ben)、合格证所(suo)列(lie)出的单位长度(du)上允许的正(zheng)负值(zhi)(一般为正(zheng)负0.05)常(chang)常(chang)是(shi)不(bu)(bu)明确(que)的,订货时要(yao)特别(bie)注意,一定(ding)(ding)(ding)要(yao)弄清是(shi)IOS(国(guo)(guo)际标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)化组织标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本(ben)(ben)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美国(guo)(guo)机床制(zhi)造商协会标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))还是(shi)NAS(美国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))等,进而分(fen)析(xi)各种不(bu)(bu)同标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)所(suo)规定(ding)(ding)(ding)的检(jian)测计算(suan)方(fang)法和检(jian)测环境条(tiao)件(jian)(jian),才不(bu)(bu)会产(chan)生(sheng)误(wu)解。

铣圆精度是(shi)综合评价卧式(shi)加工中心有关数控(kong)轴的(de)伺服跟随运动特(te)性和数控(kong)系统插补(bu)功能(neng)(neng)的(de)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)指标(biao)之一。不论典型(xing)零件(jian)是(shi)否有此(ci)需要(yao)(yao),为了将来可(ke)能(neng)(neng)的(de)需要(yao)(yao)及更好地控(kong)制精度,必须重视这(zhei)一指标(biao)。

要(yao)特别注(zhu)意区别加工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)与机床精(jing)(jing)度(du)两个不(bu)同的(de)(de)概念(nian)。将生(sheng)产(chan)厂家样(yang)本(ben)上或(huo)产(chan)品合(he)格(ge)证上的(de)(de)位(wei)置精(jing)(jing)度(du)当(dang)作卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)(de)加工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)是(shi)错(cuo)误的(de)(de)。样(yang)本(ben)或(huo)合(he)格(ge)证上标明的(de)(de)位(wei)置精(jing)(jing)度(du)是(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)本(ben)身的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du),而加工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)是(shi)包括(kuo)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)本(ben)身所允许误差在内(nei)的(de)(de)整个工(gong)艺系(xi)(xi)统各种(zhong)因(yin)素所产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)误差总(zong)和。整个工(gong)艺系(xi)(xi)统误差产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)原因(yin)是(shi)很(hen)(hen)复杂的(de)(de),很(hen)(hen)难(nan)用线性关系(xi)(xi)定量表达。选(xuan)型时(shi),可参考工(gong)序能力(li)系(xi)(xi)数Cp的(de)(de)评定方法来作为机床加工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)的(de)(de)选(xuan)型依据。一般而言,Cp应大于1.33。

站内高精密的(de)几款卧式加工中(zhong)心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式卧式加工中(zhong)心性能都不错。

建议(yi):采购用(yong)户(hu)在挑选不同精度(du)(du)的卧(wo)式加工中心时,需(xu)要考(kao)虑:不同标准对应的单位长度(du)(du)含义;重视铣圆精度(du)(du)指标;区别加工精度(du)(du)和机床精度(du)(du)。

4我(wo)应该(gai)选择哪种数(shu)控(kong)系统(tong)?——数(shu)控(kong)系统(tong)的选定

数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)分(fen)为基(ji)(ji)本功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)与选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng),可以从(cong)操(cao)作方(fang)式、用(yong)户功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)、控(kong)(kong)制方(fang)式、驱动形式、反馈形式、接口形式、检测与测量、报警与提(ti)(ti)示、故障诊断(duan)等(deng)(deng)方(fang)面(mian)综合衡(heng)量。基(ji)(ji)本功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)是必(bi)须提(ti)(ti)供(gong)(gong)的(de)(de),而(er)(er)只(zhi)有(you)当用(yong)户选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择了选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)后(hou),厂家才会另(ling)(ling)行提(ti)(ti)供(gong)(gong)并(bing)另(ling)(ling)行加价(jia)(jia),且定价(jia)(jia)一(yi)般较(jiao)高(gao)(gao)。总体(ti)而(er)(er)言,数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)一(yi)定要(yao)(yao)根据加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)性能(neng)需要(yao)(yao)来选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择,订购时既要(yao)(yao)把需要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)订全,不能(neng)遗(yi)漏,同(tong)(tong)时避免使用(yong)率不高(gao)(gao)而(er)(er)造成浪费,还需注(zhu)意各(ge)功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)关联(lian)性。另(ling)(ling)一(yi)方(fang)面(mian),在可供(gong)(gong)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择的(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)中,如(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、国产(chan)华中数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)等(deng)(deng),性能(neng)高(gao)(gao)低差别很(hen)大(da),价(jia)(jia)格(ge)亦相差很(hen)大(da),进口系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)或国产(chan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)亦决定其价(jia)(jia)格(ge)的(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)低。总体(ti)上来看,法兰克系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)性价(jia)(jia)比比较(jiao)高(gao)(gao),国内卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)使用(yong)比例比较(jiao)高(gao)(gao)。站内卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)使用(yong)法兰克数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)也比较(jiao)多,比如(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是比较(jiao)好的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择。多台卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型时,应(ying)尽(jin)可能(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)同(tong)(tong)一(yi)厂家的(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong),这(zhei)样操(cao)作、编程、维(wei)修都比较(jiao)方(fang)便(bian)。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我需要(yao)选择几(ji)台卧式加(jia)工中心能达到的(de)我的(de)产量(liang)要(yao)求?——生产能力的(de)估算

选型(xing)时(shi)(shi),必须要考(kao)(kao)虑卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)能达(da)到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)能力,即要求(qiu)选定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)在一年(nian)之内(nei)能加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)(chu)多(duo)少数(shu)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)零件(jian)(jian)。要得(de)到(dao)这(zhei)些数(shu)据(ju)(ju)必须对每一种确定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)进(jin)行加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)(shi)和生(sheng)产(chan)节(jie)拍的(de)(de)(de)(de)估算(suan)。一般步骤(zhou)为:首先,根(gen)据(ju)(ju)已选定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)进(jin)行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺分析,初步确定(ding)一条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路线,在这(zhei)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路线中(zhong)选出(chu)(chu)准(zhun)备在卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)上(shang)(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序;第二,根(gen)据(ju)(ju)现(xian)用的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参数(shu),估算(suan)出(chu)(chu)每道在卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)上(shang)(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)(de)(de)单(dan)个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)(shi)间;第三,由每个单(dan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)(shi)间计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)(chu)选定(ding)零件(jian)(jian)在卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)上(shang)(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)(de)(de)总时(shi)(shi)间,进(jin)而计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)(chu)年(nian)产(chan)量即生(sheng)产(chan)能力。如果估算(suan)结果达(da)不到(dao)目标值,但相差(cha)不大(da),则(ze)可(ke)以通过修改(gai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)方法加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)以调整;如果相差(cha)很大(da),则(ze)应考(kao)(kao)虑增加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)台数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)配置。

建议(yi):采购用户需(xu)要根据工(gong)件加工(gong)工(gong)时和生产节拍的估(gu)算,决定卧式加工(gong)中心配备台数(shu)。

6卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin)有好(hao)多选配(pei)的附(fu)件(jian)我应(ying)该如何(he)选配(pei)?——其他功(gong)能部件(jian)及附(fu)件(jian)的选定

(1)坐标轴(zhou)数(shu)和联动轴(zhou)数(shu)

坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)轴数(shu)和联动轴数(shu)均应满足(zu)典(dian)型零件(jian)加(jia)工(gong)要(yao)求。一般情(qing)况下,同(tong)厂家、同(tong)规格(ge)、同(tong)等(deng)精度(du)的卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心,增加(jia)一个标(biao)(biao)准坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)轴,价格(ge)约(yue)增加(jia)30%—50%。尽管(guan)增加(jia)坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)轴数(shu)可以(yi)强化加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的功能,是机床上档次的标(biao)(biao)志之一,但最终还是要(yao)在工(gong)艺要(yao)求和资金条件(jian)下平衡(heng)决定。

(2)工作(zuo)台

卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)可配置用(yong)于分(fen)(fen)度的(de)回转(zhuan)工(gong)作台和数控回转(zhuan)工(gong)作台,后(hou)者能(neng)够实现任意分(fen)(fen)度,作为(wei)B轴与(yu)其他轴联动控制(zhi)。回转(zhuan)工(gong)作台配置与(yu)否以(yi)(yi)及如何配置必须以(yi)(yi)实际需要来确定,以(yi)(yi)经济(ji)、实用(yong)为(wei)目的(de)。

(3)自动换刀装(zhuang)置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)选(xuan)择主要(yao)考虑换(huan)刀时间与可靠性(xing)。过分强调换(huan)刀时间会使(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)价格大幅度(du)提高并使(shi)故(gu)障率上升。据统计,加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)故(gu)障中(zhong)约有50%与ATC有关,因此,在满足使(shi)用(yong)要(yao)求的(de)前(qian)提下(xia),尽量选(xuan)用(yong)可靠性(xing)高的(de)ATC,以(yi)降(jiang)低故(gu)障率和整机成本

(4)必要的(de)附件、配(pei)套件

选(xuan)(xuan)型时,还(hai)应(ying)注意选(xuan)(xuan)用一些(xie)配(pei)套(tao)(tao)件(jian)(jian)及(ji)附(fu)件(jian)(jian),尽量(liang)(liang)避免因缺少一个几万(wan)元就能(neng)购买(mai)的(de)(de)(de)附(fu)件(jian)(jian)而影响卧式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的(de)(de)(de)正常运行。慎(shen)重(zhong)选(xuan)(xuan)择刀(dao)柄(bing)和刀(dao)具也是保证卧式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心正常运行的(de)(de)(de)关键(jian),最佳(jia)的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择办法应(ying)是根据典型零(ling)件(jian)(jian)所(suo)需的(de)(de)(de)品(pin)种和数量(liang)(liang)来确定,并在(zai)使(shi)用中陆续(xu)添置。在(zai)卧式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的(de)(de)(de)构成(cheng)中,排屑(xie)装(zhuang)置、防(fang)护装(zhuang)置和对刀(dao)装(zhuang)置 (如(ru)刀(dao)具预调仪)等(deng)均(jun)是必(bi)需的(de)(de)(de),对一些(xie)尽管(guan)不(bu)是必(bi)需的(de)(de)(de)配(pei)套(tao)(tao)件(jian)(jian),但如(ru)果价格(ge)不(bu)高,对使(shi)用带来很多方便,也应(ying)尽量(liang)(liang)选(xuan)(xuan)用,如(ru)附(fu)件(jian)(jian)铣头、储刀(dao)料架(jia)、运刀(dao)具车、装(zhuang)卸器等(deng)。

建议:配(pei)件越高(gao),能(neng)实现的功能(neng)越多,但价格也越贵,采购(gou)用户需要根(gen)据加工需求(qiu)酌(zhuo)情(qing)选配(pei)。

7卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心选型时还有什么其他需要注(zhu)意的(de)?——需要注(zhu)意的(de)一些问题

(1)结(jie)构设计(ji)

加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心对其床身、立柱、工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台、主轴(zhou)以及刀(dao)库(ku)等功(gong)能部件的结构设计有(you)着很高(gao)(gao)(gao)的要求,以达到其高(gao)(gao)(gao)强度、高(gao)(gao)(gao)刚度、高(gao)(gao)(gao)抗振性和稳定性的目的。选(xuan)型时,应特别注意把其结构作(zuo)为(wei)一项重要的具(ju)体内容(rong)来进行要求与考(kao)虑(lv)。

(2)功能与(yu)加工的适应性

虽然(ran)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心可(ke)以进行钻、扩、铣、镗、铰(jiao)、攻螺(luo)纹乃至车削 (如车铣复合(he)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心)等(deng)多种加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong),但是(shi)在(zai)具(ju)体选择时,还应根据(ju)具(ju)体需(xu)要(yao)来考虑机床(chuang)的功能与加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)是(shi)否相适应等(deng)问题(ti)。要(yao)注意以下几点:

A、复杂曲线(xian)(xian)加(jia)工(gong)时,要考虑CNC是否(fou)有所需要的(de)曲线(xian)(xian)插(cha)补(bu)功能,或(huo)选(xuan)择什么(me)方式逼近加(jia)工(gong)曲线(xian)(xian)并保证(zheng)所要求的(de)表(biao)面粗糙度。三维加(jia)工(gong)时,要考虑选(xuan)择适合的(de)刀(dao)具结构(gou),还要考虑程序编制能力(li),如有必要则必须配备(bei)自动编程装置(zhi)或(huo)后(hou)置(zhi)处理编程装置(zhi)。

B、需要进(jin)行螺纹切(qie)削(xue) (非攻螺纹方式)时(shi),不仅(jin)要看是(shi)否有(you)螺纹切(qie)削(xue)功(gong)能、螺旋(xuan)线插补功(gong)能和主(zhu)轴转(zhuan)动与进(jin)给(ji)同步功(gong)能,还(hai)要考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)(lv)机(ji)床是(shi)否有(you)径向进(jin)给(ji)装(zhuang)置(zhi)、是(shi)否有(you)主(zhu)轴在(zai)(zai)旋(xuan)转(zhuan)方向上(shang)任(ren)意角度位(wei)置(zhi)准(zhun)确定(ding)位(wei)功(gong)能。否则,仅(jin)在(zai)(zai)数控系统中用(yong)了螺纹切(qie)削(xue)功(gong)能仍(reng)然无法进(jin)行螺纹切(qie)削(xue)C、采用(yong)金刚铰、浮动镗和挤(ji)压(ya)加工等特(te)种加工时(shi),既(ji)要考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)(lv)适宜(yi)的自动换刀(dao)的条件(jian),又要考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)(lv)选择合适的刀(dao)具(ju)结构和切(qie)削(xue)用(yong)量,应尽可(ke)能在(zai)(zai)购(gou)买主(zhu)机(ji)时(shi)一并购(gou)置(zhi)部分易损部件(jian)及其他附件(jian)等。

D、如果(guo)有应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的规划,或要进行网络制造,则(ze)要注意通信功能,应选择具有RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络通信、CAN总线等接口(kou)的系统。

(3)运转的可(ke)靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采(cai)购用(yong)户(hu)在选(xuan)型(xing)时,需要对卧式加工中(zhong)心整体的(de)结构设计、可靠(kao)性以及价加工适(shi)应(ying)性有(you)客观的(de)认识。


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