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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:hbsyjc.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械手由主体、驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)系统(tong)和(he)(he)控制系统(tong)三个基本部(bu)(bu)分组成(cheng)。按(an)机(ji)器人(ren)结构(gou)分类为直角(jiao)(jiao)坐标型,机(ji)械手沿(yan)二维直角(jiao)(jiao)坐标系移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。主体部(bu)(bu)分通常采用龙门式结构(gou),由y向(xiang)(xiang)横(heng)梁(liang)与导(dao)轨、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑枕(zhen)、十(shi)字滑座(zuo)(zuo)、立柱(zhu)、过渡连(lian)接板和(he)(he)基座(zuo)(zuo)等部(bu)(bu)分组成(cheng),z向(xiang)(xiang)的直线运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)皆为交流伺服(fu)电(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)通过蜗轮减速器驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)齿轮与y向(xiang)(xiang)横(heng)梁(liang)、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑枕(zhen)上固定的齿条作(zuo)滚(gun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部(bu)(bu)件(jian)沿(yan)导(dao)轨快速运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部(bu)(bu)件(jian)为质量较轻(qing)的十(shi)字滑座(zuo)(zuo)和(he)(he)z向(xiang)(xiang)滑枕(zhen),滑枕(zhen)采用由铝合金拉制的型材。横(heng)梁(liang)采用方钢型材,在横(heng)梁(liang)上安装有导(dao)轨和(he)(he)齿条,通过滚(gun)轮与导(dao)轨接触,整个机(ji)械手都悬挂(gua)在其(qi)上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输送的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)度(du)(du)快(kuai),加速(su)(su)度(du)(du)大(da),加减速(su)(su)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)短(duan)。当输送较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)时(shi)(shi),惯量大(da),因此,伺服驱动(dong)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)要(yao)有足(zu)(zu)够的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)和(he)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能力(li),支撑元(yuan)件(jian)也(ye)要(yao)有足(zu)(zu)够的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)(du)及强度(du)(du)。只有这(zhei)样,才能使伺服电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)满足(zu)(zu)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输送的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高响(xiang)应(ying)、高刚度(du)(du)及高精度(du)(du)要(yao)求。在选(xuan)择合适伺服电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下(xia),根(gen)(gen)据(ju)(ju)物料运(yun)动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离和(he)运(yun)行节(jie)拍(pai),计(ji)(ji)算出伺服系(xi)统的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移和(he)轨迹,对(dui)驱动(dong)器PID参数(shu)进行动(dong)态(tai)(tai)调整(zheng)。桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)根(gen)(gen)据(ju)(ju)接收(shou)到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移、速(su)(su)度(du)(du)指令,经变化、放大(da)并(bing)调整(zheng)处理(li)后(hou),传(chuan)递(di)给运(yun)动(dong)单元(yuan),通(tong)过(guo)光纤传(chuan)感器对(dui)运(yun)行状态(tai)(tai)进行实时(shi)(shi)检测,在高速(su)(su)搬运(yun)过(guo)程(cheng)中,运(yun)动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)在极短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)内到达(da)给定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)度(du)(du),并(bing)能在高速(su)(su)行程(cheng)中瞬间(jian)准停(ting),通(tong)过(guo)高分辩率绝(jue)对(dui)式(shi)编(bian)码(ma)器的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)插(cha)补运(yun)算,控制(zhi)(zhi)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)误差和(he)测量误差对(dui)运(yun)动(dong)精度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。由于被输送的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)不同,质(zhi)量也(ye)不同,因此,桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)有多种规格和(he)系(xi)列。在选(xuan)择时(shi)(shi),根(gen)(gen)据(ju)(ju)被输送工件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)量,加工的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)节(jie)拍(pai)来选(xuan)取。但机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)手(shou)臂,夹(jia)持方式(shi),则根(gen)(gen)据(ju)(ju)被输送工件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形(xing)状、结构及机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)夹(jia)具定夹(jia)方式(shi)来设(she)计(ji)(ji)(见图2)。

机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)能(neng)够借助可编程序来处理和(he)执行任(ren)务。机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)主(zhu)要(yao)由(you)手(shou)(shou)图 1 臂、回(hui)转装置(zhi)、运动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)(jian)及驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)(jian)组(zu)成。通过对工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)外形(xing)或(huo)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)上定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)支(zhi)撑(cheng)点定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)。例(li)如,在汽车(che)发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)加工(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性自动(dong)(dong)(dong)线物(wu)流输送中,桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)会(hui)根(gen)据缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖(gai)、曲轴等工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)外形(xing)特点,选(xuan)取不(bu)同(tong)的(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)和(he)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)方(fang)式。柔(rou)(rou)性机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)上采(cai)用气缸(gang)和(he)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)进(jin)行定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)和(he)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)的(de)切(qie)换驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong),一套机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)可完成不(bu)同(tong)品种的(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)搬运工(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)可根(gen)据产品质量和(he)外形(xing)的(de)大小采(cai)用系列化设(she)计,机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)上的(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)安(an)装方(fang)式相同(tong),针对不(bu)同(tong)系列的(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),只需切(qie)换相应的(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)即(ji)可,满(man)足快速切(qie)换的(de)需要(yao)。这样,当加工(gong)不(bu)同(tong)品种的(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),只须变换夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)就可实现,提(ti)高(gao)了(le)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)柔(rou)(rou)性化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线(xian)桁架(jia)机(ji)械手输(shu)送装置的(de)发展及现状

自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了(le)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时代(dai)。就目前而言, 在(zai)(zai)国(guo)内二者均有之。刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)分为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)棘轮(lun)棘爪、摆杆、抬起步(bu)伐(fa)、机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形式。随着加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,由(you)其(qi)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替代(dai)组(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),它以(yi)适(shi)应小批量(liang)(liang)多(duo)品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到市(shi)场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke)(ke),并称其(qi)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种(zhong)以(yi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),就其(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)或输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)带依(yi)然为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)(ke)谓(wei)是准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)又有了(le)飞跃(yue),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)形式以(yi)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手)并存,或纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)全部(bu)(bu)(bu)由(you)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng),这(zhei)是真正(zheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),即(ji)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。如(ru)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)是高(gao)速加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)配以(yi)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),又称之为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)敏捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),是敏捷(jie)制造系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)部(bu)(bu)(bu)分。自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)采用(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)(ju)可(ke)(ke)根(gen)据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)(zhi)随意(yi)改(gai)(gai)变,自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)之间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)位置(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)再象刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)(ju)或步(bu)距(ju)(ju)倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求进行严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也可(ke)(ke)根(gen)据(ju)生产(chan)节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)(ju)离而改(gai)(gai)变。而真正(zheng)体(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)一(yi)(yi)面是,当被(bei)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产(chan)品改(gai)(gai)变后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)(bu)(bu)分不(bu)会不(bu)适(shi)应而全部(bu)(bu)(bu)更换(huan),只要(yao)改(gai)(gai)变输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)程序(xu)和机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手局部(bu)(bu)(bu)结构即(ji)可(ke)(ke)。采用(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)更先(xian)进的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)面是,机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)整体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智(zhi)能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协调统(tong)(tong)一(yi)(yi)。因此,桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手才在(zai)(zai)当今(jin)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上越来越多(duo)地被(bei)采用(yong),使整个生产(chan)过(guo)(guo)程通过(guo)(guo)信(xin)息(xi)流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)进行控(kong)制。在(zai)(zai)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)(guo)程中,所需各种(zhong)信(xin)息(xi)收(shou)集、处(chu)理、反馈(kui),并通过(guo)(guo)电子(zi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)或其(qi)他控(kong)制装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(液压、气压装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)等),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)或运输(shu)(shu)(shu)设(she)备实行分级控(kong)制。信(xin)息(xi)流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)分为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)由(you)中央管理计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)、物(wu)流控(kong)制计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)、单(dan)元控(kong)制计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)以(yi)及(ji)信(xin)息(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)网络(luo)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。目前,汽(qi)车制造业中加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)缸(gang)体(ti)、缸(gang)盖(gai)及(ji)曲轴等大批量(liang)(liang)关键零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采用(yong)了(le)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图(tu)3)。

2. 国内(nei)外的差(cha)距(ju)

当下,我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展(zhan)很(hen)快,技术水平有了很(hen)大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)提高(gao),与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距变得越来(lai)越小(xiao),甚至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外相(xiang)比已(yi)经没有什么差(cha)距。特别是国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重(zhong)大(da)(da)科(ke)技专(zhuan)项的(de)(de)(de)开展(zhan),为我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上(shang)档(dang)次(ci)上(shang)水平提高(gao)了加(jia)(jia)(jia)速(su)度,成绩显而(er)易见。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)这几年发(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)特别快,但(dan)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技术水平和(he)档(dang)次(ci),较国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距还(hai)很(hen)明显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外采(cai)用桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)较为普遍,而(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)却为数(shu)不多(duo),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)庞大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽车生产(chan)市场(chang)所(suo)采(cai)用的(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)(da)多(duo)从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外进口。如无锡柴油发(fa)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)体缸(gang)盖(gai)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)由德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承包(bao),由BZ800加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗(xi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试(shi)漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)线(xian)(xian)(xian)检具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及(ji)珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成。输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)采(cai)用空(kong)中(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道(dao)(dao)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)。仅以汽车制造业而(er)言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),采(cai)用桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈指可数(shu)。大(da)(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)和(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)等生产(chan)出(chu)了该方面的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),并(bing)在(zai)生产(chan)实际中(zhong)(zhong)得到(dao)了应用。图4是大(da)(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)体加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)两种缸(gang)体,分(fen)别为四缸(gang)和(he)六缸(gang),其输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)采(cai)用空(kong)中(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手和(he)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)两端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道(dao)(dao)等形式(shi)。桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手两个,一个上(shang)料(liao),一个下料(liao)。它的(de)(de)(de)成功,标志着我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)开始向(xiang)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际水准迈进。

上(shang)述提及的(de)(de)只是(shi)数量上(shang)的(de)(de)比(bi)较,其实真正的(de)(de)原(yuan)因还(hai)是(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)技术(shu)水(shui)平与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)有(you)着(zhe)一定的(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)。柔性加(jia)工自(zi)动线(xian)采用(yong)的(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手,也是(shi)从(cong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口的(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手。那时,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内还(hai)没(mei)有(you)专门生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)厂家。如今(jin),国(guo)(guo)(guo)内巨一等一些桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)厂家的(de)(de)涌出,为国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)(chan)柔性加(jia)工自(zi)动线(xian)带来(lai)了(le)希望,进而(er)缩小了(le)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)在(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手方面的(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju),国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手在(zai)柔性加(jia)工自(zi)动线(xian)的(de)(de)应用(yong)也越来(lai)越多(duo),从(cong)而(er)打破国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)(chan)市场被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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